Team LiB
Previous Section Next Section

6.4. Working with Large Numbers of Users

The trick to handling large numbers of users is to establish a clear, well-defined policy at the beginning and stick to it. It is essential to have the policy distributed to all users. Few of them will read it, but there isn't anything else you can do about it except be polite when they complain. With all the work we have done so far to secure dynamic request execution, some holes do remain. System accounts (virtual or not) can and will be used to attack your system or the neighboring accounts. A well-known approach to breaking into shared hosting web sites is through insecure configuration, working from another shared hosting account with the same provider.

Many web sites use PHP-based content management programs, but hosted on servers where PHP is configured to store session information in a single folder for all virtual accounts. Under such circumstances, it is probably trivial to hijack the program from a neighboring hosting account. If file permissions are not configured correctly and dynamic requests are executed as a single user, attackers can use PHP scripts to read other users' files and retrieve their data.

6.4.1. Web Shells

Though very few hosting providers give shells to their customers, few are aware that a shell is just a tool to make use of the access privileges customers already have. They do not need a shell to upload a web script to simulate a shell (such scripts are known as web shells), or even to upload a daemon and run it on the provider's server.

If you have not used a web shell before, you will be surprised how full-featured some of them are. For examples, see the following:

You cannot stop users from running web shells, but by having proper filesystem configuration or virtual filesystems, you can make them a nonissue. Still, you may want to have cron scripts that look through customers' cgi-bin/ folders searching for well-known web shells. Another possibility is to implement intrusion detection and monitor Apache output to detect traces of web shells in action.

6.4.2. Dangerous Binaries

When users are allowed to upload and execute their own binaries (and many are), that makes them potentially very dangerous. If the binaries are being executed safely (with an execution wrapper), the only danger comes from having a vulnerability in the operating system. This is where regular patching helps. As part of your operational procedures, be prepared to disable executable content upload, if a kernel vulnerability is discovered, until you have it patched.

Some people use their execution privileges to start daemons. (Or attackers exploit other people's execution privileges to do that.) For example, it is quite easy to upload and run something like Tiny Shell ( on a high port on the machine. There are two things you can do about this:

  • Monitor the execution of all user processes to detect the ones running for a long time. Such processes can be killed and reported. (However, ensure you do not kill the FastCGI processes.)

  • Configure the firewall around the machine to only allow unsolicited traffic to a few required ports (80 and 443 in most cases) into the server, and not to allow any unrelated traffic out of the server. This will prevent the binaries run on the server from communicating with the attacker waiting outside. Deployment of outbound traffic filtering can have a negative impact on what your customers can do. With the rise in popularity of web services, may web sites use services provided by other sites anywhere on the Internet. Closing unrelated outgoing traffic from taking place will break such web sites. If you are really paranoid (and must allow unrelated outgoing traffic) consider allowing HTTP traffic only but routing it through a reverse proxy where you can inspect and control the payload.

    Team LiB
    Previous Section Next Section