Book HomeMySQL and mSQLSearch this book

14.3. Dynamic Database Access

So far we have dealt with applications where you know exactly what needs to be done at compile time. If this were the only kind of database support that JDBC provided, no one could ever write tools like the mysql and msql interactive command line tools that determine SQL calls at runtime and execute them. The JDBC Statement class provides the execute() method for executing SQL that may be either a query or an update. Additionally, ResultSet instances provide runtime information about themselves in the form of an interface called ResultSetMetaData which you can access via the getMetaData() call in the ResultSet.

14.3.1. Meta Data

The term meta data sounds officious, but it is really nothing other than extra data about some object that would otherwise waste resources if it were actually kept in the object. For example, simple applications do not need the name of the columns associated with a ResultSet -- the programmer probably knew that when the code was written. Embedding this extra information in the ResultSet class is thus not considered by JDBC's designers to be core to the functionality of a ResultSet. Data such as the column names, however, is very important to some database programmers -- especially those writing dynamic database access. The JDBC designers provide access to this extra information -- the meta data -- via the ResultSetMetaData interface. This class specifically provides:

Another example class that comes with the mSQL-JDBC driver is the Exec application. It will accept any SQL you specify on a command line and execute it. Example 14-1 shows that source code.

Example 14-1. The Source to the Exec Application for Executing Dynamic SQL

import java.sql.*;

public class Exec {
    public static void main(String args[]) {
        Connection con = null;
        String sql = "";
        for(int i=0; i<args.length; i++) {
            sql = sql + args[i];
            if( i < args.length - 1 ) {
                sql = sql + " ";
        System.out.println("Executing: " + sql);
        try {
            String url = "jdbc:msql://";
            con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "borg", "");
            Statement s = con.createStatement();   
            if( s.execute(sql) ) {
                ResultSet r = s.getResultSet();
                ResultSetMetaData meta = r.getMetaData();
                int cols = meta.getColumnCount();
                int rownum = 0;
                while( ) {
                    System.out.println("Row: " + rownum);
                    for(int i=0; i<cols; i++) {
                        System.out.print(meta.getColumnLabel(i+1) + ": "
                                         + r.getObject(i+1) +  ", ");
            else {
                System.out.println(s.getUpdateCount() + " rows affected.");
        catch( Exception e ) {
        finally {
            if( con != null ) {
                try { con.close(); }
                catch( SQLException e ) { }

Each result set provides a ResultSetMetaData instance via the getMetaData() method. In the case of dynamic database access, we need to find out the how many columns are in a result set so that we are certain to retrieve each column as well as the names of each of the columns for display to the user. The meta data for our result set provides all of this information via the getColumnCount() and getColumnLabel() methods.

14.3.2. Processing Dynamic SQL

The concept introduced in Example 14-1 is the dynamic SQL call. Because we do not know whether we will be processing a query or an update, we need to pass the SQL call through the execute() method. This method returns true if the statement returned a result set or false if none was produced. In the example, if it returns true, the application gets the returned ResultSet through a call to getResultSet() . The application can then go on to do normal result set processing. If, on the other hand, the statement performed some sort of database modification, you can call getUpdateCount() to find out how many rows were modified by the statement.

Library Navigation Links

Copyright © 2001 O'Reilly & Associates. All rights reserved.

This HTML Help has been published using the chm2web software.